1. Program of Study
Doctor of Management in Organizational Leadership
2. Problem Statement
The problem is unresolved interpersonal conflict leads to distrust between an organization and employees resulting in a dissenting organizational climate (Castelberry, 2018).
3. Purpose Statement
The purpose of the proposed Delphi study is to gain a consensus of opinion from a panel of organizational experts on effective organizational conflict resolution strategies.
4. Research Question
What is the consensus of opinion from a panel of organizational experts on effective conflict resolution strategies?
The proposed study will use a qualitative methodology. Qualitative methodology is a research methodology that perceives and understands lived experiences (Katz, 2015). The methodology is relevant because the purpose statement seeks to understand effective organizational strategies from experts. The qualitative methodology is vital to this study to emphasize the importance of lived experiences through managerial conflict resolution strategies. The lived experiences will demonstrate how consciousness evolves through time to develop sophisticated conflict resolution strategies that adapted to the culture to understand employees’ perspectives (Katz, 2015). The study seeks to explore the thoughts and opinions of organizational experts pertaining to conflict resolution strategies and not a quantitative methodology that seeks a measurement and explain statistical data (Goertzen, 2017). The qualitative method in the study seeks wisdom.
The design is the Classical Delphi method. The Classical Delphi method will apply a panel of experts that will provide from their experience effective organizational conflict resolution strategies (Roszczynski, 2020). The Delphi design is appropriate because it forms a consensus independently and objectively. There is a myriad of information individually on each conflict resolution style (Roszczynski, 2020). There is a lack of research addressing if each conflict resolution style is effective in an organization. Therefore, the appropriate means to add research to a Doctorate of Management for Organizational Leadership is to explore the thoughts and opinions of organizational experts to form a consensus of opinion about the effectiveness of the conflict resolution styles and the direction that organizational experts perceive conflict resolution will be in the future. The Classical Delphi method is the design that explores the thought and opinions of organizational experts to comprehend a consensus of opinion about the effectiveness of current conflict resolution strategies (Roszczynski, 2020).
The theoretical framework of the study is the conflict resolution theory, the Jungian theory of individuation, the Unified Model of Leadership, procedural justice theory, and the unitive justice theory. The theoretical framework of the study will involve understanding the different strategies of conflict resolution and the means by which the strategies achieve results from the thoughts, opinion, and experience of organizational experts (Behrens et al., 2020). The etymology of conflict breaks down to the word creating an opposition between two forces (Conflict, n.d.). The etymology of resolution means separating the parts to find a solution (Resolution, n.d.). Therefore, an effective conflict resolution style seeks to heal and transform the opposition into a new bond. The combinations of these theories provide the theoretical framework by which the study will be guided to perceive the lived experiences of managers through interpersonal conflict with employees.
Conflict Resolution Theory
The current types of conflict resolution are alternative dispute resolution (legalistic theory), integrated conflict management systems (systems theory), the strategic theory of conflict management (strategic theory) (Lipsky & Avgard, 2008). The study emphasizes incorporating any new conflict resolution styles that organizations have taught experts and self-taught conflict resolution styles if an organization did not teach the importance of conflict resolution. Incorporating current conflict resolution theories and remaining open to new conflict resolution theories ensures that all conflict resolution styles are taken into account by determining effective strategies.
Jungian Theory of Individuation
The Jungian theory of individuation represents a process through which individuals and society undergo conflict to transcend the ego evolving consciousness (Lee, 2017). The Rosarium Philosophorum provides an outline of conflict resolution that leads to a transformation that begins before the opposition of the conflict occurs (Nuttall, 2002). The theory of individuation ends with a resolution that brings transformational change and an enlightened consciousness (Nuttall, 2002). Conflict resolution does not come to a solution unless a transformation occurs. If conflict resolution does not transform, then the process will begin again until the two opposites coalesce. Therefore, Jung’s Theory of Individuation provides evidence for the outcome of an effective conflict resolution strategy which transforms the two opposites into something new.
The Unified Model of Leadership
The Unified Model of Leadership associates the stage of leadership development through the perceived leader’s ability to manage the conflict of individual and collective consciousness transformation (Anderson & Adams, 2016). The stages of leadership are Egocentric, Reactive, Creative, Integral, and Unitive (Anderson & Adams, 2016). The stages of leadership follow the path of the Jungian theory of individuation. The process of the Jungian theory of individuation is that the process begins with the ego, and it reacts to the oppositional force (Edinger, 1994). Then the ego has to ability to choose a creative path that leads to integration and finally, oneness (Unitive) (Edinger, 1994). Therefore, the stage of development in leadership depends on the perspective that the manager will use within the conflict resolution theories to resolve the conflict. Organizational experts will perceive each conflict resolution theory differently depending on the stage of their leadership development (Anderson & Adams, 2016).
Procedural Justice Theory
The procedural justice theory provides a fair and reasonable solution to conflict resolution that impacts employees on a positive level (Kim & Beehr, 2020). The importance of solving conflict positively will bring about a transformation process that brings employees and an organization together. An organization can choose to avoid conflict or resolving the conflict in a negative manner. Avoiding conflict and negatively resolving conflict destroys the integrity of an organization which leads to loss of money in the hiring process or lawsuits (Kim & Beehr, 2020). Learning effective conflict resolution strategies through understanding Procedural Justice Theory will save organizations money while bringing employees closer to an organization reducing employee turnover (Kim & Beehr, 2020).
Unitive Justice Theory
The Unitive justice theory is a compassionate form of resolving conflicts through understanding and not egotistical punitive justice resolutions (Wozniak, 2014). The Unitive Justice Theory suggests that all forms of conflict resolution seek to continue the cycle of punishment by punishing the punisher (Wozniak, 2014). The unitive justice theory seeks to understand the pain and resolve conflicts through understanding and compassion (Wozniak, 2014). The most effective conflict resolution strategies will mend and unite instead of continuing the cyclic path of punishment.
8. Significance of the Study
The significance of the study is to understand the methods that organizational experts implement to resolve conflict. The study is unique because most companies rely on external and not internal strategies to manage conflict within their organizations (Castleberry, 2018). The focus of the study is an introspection of the internal strategies of conflict resolution to explore the effect that organizations strategize to solve interpersonal conflict. The study will advance the knowledge of research in Organizational Leadership by exploring the thoughts and opinions of organizational experts by comprehending the experience and effectiveness of their strategies.
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